*The birth of Andre Cailloux in is celebrated on this date. He was a Black businessman and soldier in the Civil War. Cailloux was born a slave on a. The American civil war's bloody turning point will be commemorated this week and a teenager or a domestic helper sneaking a cigarette at the flat across from us Traditional wooden buildings in Listvyanka, also known as the Baikal Riviera, Next to the door of each pen, a dry-erase board lists the occupant's date of.
Unidentified soldiers in Union uniforms holding cigars in each other's mouths, ca. When shots were fired from Fort Sumter, a fortification near Charleston, S. Those soldiers did not have to bear their souls to disprove that military readiness is a heterosexual calling, nor did they have to prove that their patriotism to the cause was diminished because of their sexual orientation. And in combing through Civil War battle records of Confederate and Union soldiers, I find, ba bases of dating were not only slaughtering one another — many were also loving one another. Sex in the Civil Warthe first scholarly study of the sex lives of soldiers in the Mouaki dating War. This physician and medical historian reminds me of Alfred Kinsey in his research on human sexuality.
Unforeseen events crowd in, unexpected guests arrive, messengers come and go. Each day brings its surprises. The writing of both women is not without a purpose, that of memory. A temporal memory is actively created, just as it is actively read.
History is unexpectant; created when it is told, read or experienced it is nothing when it is unknown. The reader like the writer is unprepared for the next entry, each is a new experience, where candidness aptly represents the uncertain future events that change impact of each new day.
Each day history is made. The activity of the text is duplicitous, it is literally filled with daily events of the war, but what the text does is synchronize the reader's movement from one entry to the next.
Similarly the real-life daily events of the period have a dramatic effect upon each subsequent event. War is a cumulative event married to the concept of time also known as death Sacks. The consciousness of time is what one feels when performing the action of reading, to have the action visibly marked by the passing of dates gives evidence of the action and of the real-life events' impact, for it causes a progression.
Uncertainty is felt in many instances, what will the next entry be, will I understand the references or will I become disoriented, will the temporal events continue to build?
The uncertainty that the reader feels is paralleled to the uncertainty of the real-life experience heightened by war. The rhythmical expectant motion of each entry and day, mixed with the unexpectant element of the content; mimics the rigidness of the war, uniforms, daily routine, even a process in battle; which is contrasted with the vulnerability of war and death. The reader feels a comfort yet distinct vulnerability in reading Alice Williamson's diary, the probable feelings that she herself felt when writing.
A sense of security is setup in communicating to through writing or reading something that has no agency. This is felt in the writing and reading of a diary heightened by the formal structure of the media. However, one may feel vulnerable in what is said, she speaks of war and death.
Williamson seems to unintentionally scare at least some of her modern readers, her images are bold and unemotional, and thankfully secured on a page. Those accustomed to war most likely feel a different vulnerability, that of pained truth a reminder of their own lives insecurity. Williamson writes: March 12th Old Payne dined at Mrs. Hales today: Yesterday he went up the country a few miles to a Mr.
Dalton's whose son came home from the Southern Army the day before and had the same day taken the Amnesty Oath. Riding up to the door he inquired of Mr. Dalton if his son was at home but before he answered his son came to the door. Old Nick then told him to get his horse and go with him. After insulting the father he carried his son a half mile away and shot him six times. One of Payne's escort hearing the young man groan with pain placed a pistol to his temple and remarked, I will stop that, sir, he shot him again.
But this is nothing new this is the fifth man that has been shot in this way, besides numbers that have been carried off by scouts and never return. March 12th Weather moderate; so is old Payne, but as weather is changeable our general is too.
Sacks speaks of the healing affects of repetition, perhaps this 16 year old girl finds comfort in repeatedly describing the horrific images of General Paine shootings throughout her diary.
Her words serve to normalize, soothe, and eventually comfort the reader in her repetition that may have been her own anecdote for the death now surrounding both the reader and the writer. The engagement of the text is contrasted undisruptively by an oddity found in the text. Alice Williamson's age and sex are contrasted by subjects addressed in her journal, confusing both the modern and historical reader's response criticism.
Female youth during the period represented "hopeful possibilities and prospects for the country The singular focus of the war and the absence of "feminine" issues is uncommon amongst Civil War journals by women during the period; even amongst the majority of journals geared toward the preservation of history as Williamson's.
The decrease of publishing during the war would have meant these novels most likely were still read by women such as Williamson, who proves an active reader, citing the daily newspaper in her journal: August I pity that place.
By citing the daily newspaper she works to assert her opinions with some backing. But also focuses her attention to external events rather than focusing on herself and the family. Women during the Civil War became part of a transitional movement from the refined "lady" of the early 's, defined and judged by her religious devotion and her relation to her family prescribed to young girls in such magazines as the Godey's Lady Book ; to a more modern conception of feminism.
Women began to have a greater influence and role in the development of the larger society. Kava, pg. This is not to say that the "traditional" importance of women remaining in the domestic sphere was abolished, it certainly was not. Soldiers "needed" a place to come "home" to, something to be sustained; it was the women's job to still create this while trying to expand their roles in society. Williamson excludes socially defined feminine issues from the topics of her journal, instead choosing to talk solely about the daily events of war in the personal forum using a temporal manner.
This creates the feeling that the progression of time will not make new hopeful possibilities, clarifying that motherhood is not a prospect of the future she is looking forward to or planning for in the way we saw in The Coquette by Hannah W. She rejects the period's socialized obligation of motherhood, as well as the previous eras coquettish ideas. Yet, she complies to another form of obligation; that which is being read by the reader.
The reader reads her alternative form of female obligation, that of recording of history for her "rebel brothers. The same deceptiveness she describes the General having in the diary.
The General Paine referred to by Williamson as Old Payne, Our king, his lordship, Tempest, and old hurricane; stole locals furniture for his own usage.
Eleazar Williamson reference to this is: His lordship left Tuesday. Wednesday three wagons loaded with furniture came over. I do not pretend to say that he sent them. I indeed, I would not. I would not slander our king. Any old citizen can see by going to his Payne's palace that his furniture was not taken from Archie Miller's house and other places near by. He always goes for the rebels but invariably brings furniture. In this passage Williamson describes personal belongings getting into someone else's hands, she displays a familial like obligation to protect Paine, while deceiving others.
Is this perhaps what we the reader are doing, obtaining something personal, questioning our alliances and deceiving others? The meaning of Alice Williamson's diary could be described as an example of the changing roles women's during the Civil War Kava, Boatwright, Davidson, Gwin represented by what is often seen as the pulse of a culture, its youth Fox, , relayed first hand.
But that is only half the story. The importance of reading a text as an experience is as crucial to the text as the subject. Clearly, we each come to the reading experience with our own personal baggage. The perception of a diary and femininity for each individual and time period is different. The form one writes in affects the reader's perception of the text and the message.
The perception of time creates as much meaning as the text itself. The method of discussion can be healing form of elegy in a time of pain. Acknowledgment of one's audience creates history in a public manner serving to either include or exclude, heightening the readers awareness of their own interaction with the text.
Bibliography Arnold, Laura. The Coquette," Portland: Reed College, Boatwright, Eleanor M. Status of Women in Georgia, Carlson Publishing, Davidson, Cathy N. Revolution and the WORD: Rise of The Novel in America. New York: Oxford University Press, Eleazar Arthur Paine.
Sumner County Historical Society, East, Charles. University of Georgia Press, Memory and History in Texas. Those who acted on the news did so at their peril. Hardly the recipe for a celebration — which is what makes the story of Juneteenth all the more remarkable.
Each has also had its share of conflicts and confusion. I answer; a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity.
Historians estimate that about , slaves — out of a total of 3. Who Was Plessy? On the next Jan. This was accomplished through readings of the Emancipation Proclamation, religious sermons and spirituals, the preservation of slave food delicacies always at the center: Like a boxer sparring with his rival, year after year Juneteenth was strengthened by the contest its committee members had to wage against the Jim Crow faithful of Texas, who, in the years following Reconstruction, rallied around their version of history in an effort to glorify and whitewash past cruelties and defeats.
When whites forbade blacks from using their public spaces, black people gathered near rivers and lakes and eventually raised enough money to buy their own celebration sites, among them Emancipation Park in Houston and Booker T. Washington Park in Mexia. This was especially true in the s, Turner explains, with the Consumer Age infiltrating black society with advertisements for fancier Juneteenth getups and more elaborate displays of pomp and circumstance. Actually, it occurred at the tail end of the movement, two months after its most prominent leader had been shot down.
As is well-known, Martin Luther King Jr. Following his assassination, it was left to others to carry out the plan, among them his best friend, the Rev. Ralph Abernathy, and his widow, Coretta Scott King. As William H. Wiggins Jr. It was, in effect, another great black migration. Who Was Plessy. Leading the charge was Rep. As a concession to Lost Cause devotees, Texas reaffirmed its commitment to observing Jan.