Common 19th Century Vintage Photo Types 1. Daguerreotypes This is a FREE offering from Family History Daily to help you with your research. Unsubscribe at any time. I have written a comprehensive and free guide to dating early photographs, but it covers only cased images (up to ). Also, by this time the medical care of women was passing from midwives to male doctors, most of whom did not respect a woman's right to terminate or prevent pregnancy. It was not until the mid 20th century that the advent of the birth control pill successfully controlled .
In her diary, she doesn't discuss her sex life openly, but she recorded the consummation of her marriage on June She and Oscar had six children, and she had a physician nineteenfh each of the births. The six children were dating nineteenth century photographs of babies within the six years of September through December Birth dating nineteenth century photographs of babies was not particularly effective, other than hiv dating zambia, during the mid 19th century. In Kate and Oscar lived apart for a while, when he was ill, and then she lived with her mother for several months after he returned. This was considered a form of birth control and was apparently effective for Kate and Oscar.
Kate also lost a daughter-in-law and grandchild in childbirth. On July 7, , the wife of her oldest son, Jean, died in childbirth, along with the infant. Afterward, Kate had to care for her grieving son and he never recovered from the grief. These experiences reflect the experiences of many women of the 19th century. Maternal deaths and neonatal deaths were statistically higher for births attended by midwives, and it was not until the end of the 19th century that this was considered problematic on a national level.
Birth Control in the 19th Century Prior to any developed methods of birth control, women had to rely on male withdrawal, and on crude infanticide and abortion for backup. Mechanical means were the most common birth control methods in the 19th century. These included: There were also potions and pills that were extremely dangerous for the mother as well as the fetus.
The rhythm methods used in the 19th century calculating the woman's fertile period and abstaining during that period were largely ineffective because the calculations were based on observations of animals, and the recommendation was that women abstain during their menstruation period or just before it.
Modern science has proved that, unlike animals, women are least fertile during their menstruation, and most fertile in the days in the middle of the menstruation cycle. Women in the 19th century who relied on the rhythm method were actually abstaining from sexual activity when they were least fertile and having sex when they were most likely to conceive. Abortion, while controversial and considered largely immoral, was relatively common.
It is estimated that in the 's, one in every thirty pregnancies was terminated by abortion. Methods ranged from surgery, poisons, home remedies from plants and herbs, and mechanical means such as striking the woman's abdomen repeatedly. Abortion was considered illegal in the United States by in most cases, with the exception being those considered "necessary to save the life of the woman".
Caucasian urban women from affluent society had greater access to abortion by a physician. Rural and non-white women were much more likely to depend on herbal or mechanical means. Figure 1, a sponge; Figure 2, a syringe used after intercourse to wash semen out of the vagina ; Figure 3, a cap None of the birth control methods of the 19th century aside from infanticide and abortion were particularly effective and none of them were new. Women would sometimes nurse their children for up to two years, which would prolong their infertile period.
Withdrawal by the male, douching and vaginal suppositories were around in ancient times and common in the 19th century. In condoms and diaphragms were produced with vulcanized rubber. It was second in popularity to withdrawal, but was not really advocated as birth control. Rather, it was to be used to prevent venereal disease. The most effective form of birth control was abstaining from sexual intercourse, but this was not acceptable to most spouses.
Attitudes about birth control were changing readily by the mid 19th century. Early suffragists campaigned for voluntary motherhood during the 's, but they advocated celibacy and abstinence for birth control rather than mechanical means or abortion. Many states had made abortion a crime at any stage of fetal development by the mid 19th century and the Comstock Law of made abortion and birth control illegal in the United States.
Also, by this time the medical care of women was passing from midwives to male doctors, most of whom did not respect a woman's right to terminate or prevent pregnancy. It was not until the mid 20th century that the advent of the birth control pill successfully controlled pregnancy and birth. Childbirth in the 19th Century Over the course of the 19th century, the average American woman gave birth to six children, not including children lost to miscarriages and stillbirths.
There was no modern medical care so the women had frequent complications such as lacerations and permanent damage to their bodies. This made subsequent birth even more painful. In addition, most working-class women did not have the opportunity to rest and recover for very long after giving birth.
They were expected to resume domestic chores and work, along with mothering the newborn infant. A midwife usually assisted in births. The midwife could sometimes stay with the family for a few days following the birth. In America, daguerreotypes were often placed in hinged, wooden cases with paper or leather coverings. Height of Popularity: Also look for their highly-polished silver support. Wikimedia Commons. Salt printing was also the first process to utilize both a negative and a positive allowing photographers to create prints of larger quantities.
Photographers would coat a thin sheet of paper with egg white which would hold light-sensitive silver salt on the surface of the paper, preventing image fading.
Once it was dry, albumen prints were used just like salted-paper prints and the image would form by the darkening properties of the sun on the chemicals. Most of the surviving photographs from the 19th century are on albumen paper. Albumen prints take on a rich, purple-brown hue. When you examine these photos, look for paper fibers through the albumen overlay. You can also usually see a fine lateral cracking across the glossy photo surface.
The support is typically thin and also coated with albumen. Photo above is an albumen print of an unidentified confederate Civil War soldier. Get 30 Days of Genealogy Tips Free What might you learn with 30 days of expert genealogy research tips delivered straight to your inbox? Subscribe below and you'll receive one helpful genealogy tip every day for thirty days.
Easily discover new research techniques, record collections and resources. You'll also receive our free weekly newsletter so that you can stay up-to-date on our newest articles. Unsubscribe at any time. You're almost ready to start receiving tips! Simply confirm your email address to complete your subscription. There was an error submitting your subscription. Please try again. Email Address We won't send you spam. Powered by ConvertKit Height of Popularity: You can distinguish a CDV from other card mounts mostly by the size: Carte de viste above is of Sojourner Truth in Ambrotypes In , the ambrotype became a popular photographic print method which used the wet-plate collodion process to create a positive photograph on glass.