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Regardless of the motivation for vaccination, its costs can usually be shared between the public and private sectors. Cost-effective vaccination requires methods of delivery to be adapted to livestock production systems. The paper concludes by suggesting questions around the use of vaccination that would merit further economic analysis. Interested parties may include the following: Most readers will be familiar with the basic principles both of vaccination and of the economic analysis of animal health.

Aspects of economic analysis and modelling of animal health have been dealt with in varying degrees of complexity by many authors 18, 30, 33, 37, 42, 45, General thinking on animal health and livestock economics, including new institutional economics, has also been variously described by many authors 1, 12, 16, 26, 28, 40, 48, A summary of economic methods for animal health was made recently by Rich et al.

Rather than repeating what has been well described, this paper concentrates on the practicality of applying economic analysis to assessment of vaccination, by identifying a series of key questions and reviewing the way in which decisions have actually been made in different situations. A stepwise process is used to lay out the most important issues, although in reality, decisions are seldom as linear or clear cut as they are in conceptual models.

The process is as follows: It is not impossible that conflicting answers will arise, and in this case, it is necessary to weigh objectives and make a choice, or to look for an acceptable compromise.

Here, two closely related points must be examined: This means that the delivery process needs to be adapted to the production systems in which vaccination is applied, and the potential recurrent costs of vaccination should be examined carefully before a programme is started. The remainder of the paper examines each of the above points in turn, and then concludes by identifying areas where animal health planners would benefit from further support or new economic analyses to assist in decisions about the use of vaccination in animal disease control.

For this strategy to work, necessary conditions would include the existence of a safe and effective vaccine, and rapid onset of protection at individual level. Vaccination has been used in stamping out of foot and mouth disease FMD outbreaks, for example in the Netherlands, when insufficient personnel and equipment were available for culling.

At the time of writing, ring vaccination was being reviewed by several countries for the control of highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI since vaccines have been developed that provide good protection to poultry. The main technical concerns were that vaccinated birds must not increase the risk to humans, since they greatly reduce clinical disease but do not completely eliminate virus shed, and that birds could be adequately protected against spread in the poultry population when full protection was only conferred after two applications of vaccine.

There is always a concern when using vaccination in an emergency situation that a sufficient amount of vaccine can be provided at short notice, since vaccine has a finite shelf life and manufacturers cannot afford to maintain large stocks against uncertain future orders. Vaccination has been an important component in eradication programmes, including those involving progressive zoning, such as those for rinderpest in Africa and FMD in Latin America.

The technical challenge in using vaccination for eradication is to obtain on a consistent basis sufficiently high levels of herd immunity to prevent virus spread the protection level needed depends on the reproductive rate of the virus. Rinderpest devastated African cattle herds in the 19th Century and had become very widespread in less virulent forms in the 20th Century.

An effective vaccine was produced several years ago that confers lifelong immunity, and later, a thermostable form was developed that could be delivered without a cold chain. It was therefore possible, with annual vaccination programmes, to maintain a level of immunity in the herd sufficient to drive back disease. In many countries disease has reduced to a point where vaccination could be stopped and the few remaining outbreaks controlled with surveillance and stamping out.

Vaccination against FMD, although it has been used successfully in control programmes, is less straightforward because the vaccines available against FMD offer only a short span of protection, and bi- or tri-valent vaccines are needed to protect against the many and changing virus strains.

When vaccination is used as a preventive measure to keep incidence below certain levels, a vaccine is needed that can be applied effectively by farmers as well as veterinarians. It is applied in this way to deal with classical swine fever Technical viability of vaccination Vaccination may be considered for the following purposes: In the first case, that of stamping out a new outbreak, vaccination together with reduced culling may be considered as an alternative to widespread culling.

Vaccinating in a ring around an outbreak and culling in a smaller inner ring reduces the number of animals that need Rev. It is also used against Newcastle disease ND and rabies, where there may be reservoirs of infection in wild animals. ND occurs all over the world and sweeps through smallholder poultry flocks from time to time, causing high mortality.

Well-tested vaccines exist that can be used as a preventive measure in less than optimal field conditions, and applied even without injection, and they offer the means for individual farmers to protect their flocks. For some important diseases, such as African swine fever ASF and bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE vaccines do not exist and the only possibilities for their control are good hygiene management to improve biosecurity of herds or stamping out measures culling and disinfection together with movement control to remove outbreaks.

Even where good vaccines do exist, vaccination programmes must always be supported by surveillance and backed up by other measures. When the basic technical requirements for using vaccination have been met, it can be examined for economic viability.

Two important considerations facing decision makers are the use of vaccination in countries engaged in international trade, and the possible benefits of vaccination in protecting livelihoods, particularly those of vulnerable people. Each of these will now be examined in turn. Developing and emerging economies, whose resource base allows them to be competitive, have increasing importance in production, in particular the big three, Brazil, China and India In many countries with strong livestock production growth, there continue to be problems with animal disease control.

There has been a shift towards processed products among the industrial producers, in large part because of increased concerns about animal health and food safety regulations. The ability to export livestock and their products depends on equivalence of animal health and food safety conditions, particularly with regard to animal diseases that have been defined as notifiable by the OIE Currently, countries where notifiable diseases are present have limited potential to export unprocessed livestock products or live animals to those that can prove they do not have the same diseases, although it is possible to export processed products such as heat-treated or de-boned meat.

For exporting countries wishing to access premium markets, freedom from notifiable diseases forms a major preoccupation for their Veterinary Services and the commercial livestock sector. Increasingly it is being recognised and defined in international guidelines that disease freedom may apply not only to a country but also to a zone or a compartment.

While the concept of a zone is quite well accepted, that of the compartment is less so. Thailand has been exploring the possibility of defining disease-free and vaccination-free compartments for export of poultry 22 which might allow targeted vaccination in smallholder flocks outside the compartments.

It has been difficult to arrive at a technically and financially viable design that is acceptable to importers. The concept of safe commodity trading also allows for some flexibility. Essentially, it argues that a certified processed product such as de-boned beef from a hazard analysis critical control point HACCP -accredited slaughterhouse should be exportable even if vaccination is being applied in other parts of the livestock sector.

This has always been possible to some extent, since processed products are exported from countries that vaccinate against certain diseases. It is of great interest in the Horn of Africa, where ruminant meat from extensive systems is the main exportable product.

Gradient systems those that allow different conditions for different parts of the livestock sector have many attractions. There are, however, concerns that flexible standards in animal health and food safety might actually mean double standards, with premium markets getting better care and attention while others are offered a second-class product.

One way to prevent that happening is to pay attention to providing suitable services to all types of production system. Importing countries free of disease and not vaccinating may decline to take animal products from countries, or Vaccination and international trade Figure 1 reminds us of the well recognised trend towards increasing international trade in livestock commodities, particularly from developing countries.

Morgan, 23 Rev. A country trying to achieve official recognition of disease freedom can only do so after a progressive control programme and months or years free of any outbreak the OIE regulations define precise periods for some diseases, for others it is a matter of negotiation between trading partners.

Disease freedom when vaccination is applied, even if it can reliably be demonstrated that there is no clinical disease, is never considered equivalent to freedom without vaccination by importing countries that are free without vaccination e. FMD vaccination can be used for a short time to control an outbreak in a previously free area, but it must quickly be withdrawn and the area monitored for some time before trade can recommence , even if the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code may not differentiate the requirement.

The benefits of achieving and maintaining a premium export market can be considerable. When a country trades in livestock products on the basis of freedom from certain diseases without vaccination, the critical economic question will be: Thailand was one of the first countries to report HPAI when a series of outbreaks began in Asia in With disease in 51 provinces and a silently infected duck population in the wetland areas, it would have been a reasonable decision to move to widespread vaccination.

A house-to-house x-ray survey was implemented to seek out disease, and all subsequent cases were rapidly investigated, reported and stamped out. These efforts greatly reduced disease but have not yet eliminated it, and recovery of the export trade was achieved largely by expanding processed products.

Countries in trading blocs try to create harmonious rules about animal health, so that countries within the bloc can trade with each other under reduced transactions costs. The countries of the EU try to remain free of notifiable animal diseases without vaccination, and when a member of the bloc experiences an outbreak there is peer pressure to control it by stamping out measures.

In the United Kingdom UK , an outbreak of FMD in was controlled without the use of vaccination, although at considerable cost in terms of lost animals. There were no major markets threatened at that time, as beef markets were closed due to BSE, the predominant lamb markets were for low value product to Spain and Italy and pork markets were for cuts that did not sell in the UK, but there was a strong political will to eradicate the disease.

This was eventually achieved, but not without the loss of considerable numbers of animals, losses in other rural industries, psychological effects on farmers and concerns among the general public about slaughter of healthy animals Since , the EC has revised its directives on FMD control to provide greater flexibility in the use of vaccination.

At the same time, the OIE has agreed a reduction in the use of the holding period before freedom from disease can be declared. The development of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals DIVA strategies making it possible to distinguish in serological tests between antibodies from disease and those from vaccination offers further potential for limited use of vaccination by exporting countries.

However, there has not yet been a reexamination of the UK data to assess whether vaccination would be economically and technically viable under current regulatory conditions. For countries engaged in international trade of live animals or unprocessed products, therefore, there will be hesitation in permitting vaccination to be used in disease control.

In the event of an outbreak, a stamping out process that relies on culling and movement control rather than vaccination will promote a faster return to trade, provided that it is successful.

Protecting livelihoods and human well-being Animal vaccination may have a role to play in protecting the livelihoods of producers and traders of livestock, and individuals employed in the livestock sector, particularly small-scale operators whose livelihoods are vulnerable Rev. Vaccination is likely to be beneficial to livelihoods in the following situations: When stamping out measures are used to deal with an emerging or re-emerging disease, the effect on the national economy of the culling of even quite large numbers of animals may be minimal.

Unfortunately, the effect on the livelihoods of those immediately affected may be severe. Depopulation of animals other than occasionally and on a very small scale can be badly damaging to livelihoods of smallholders and small-scale traders who rely on regular or instantly accessible cash flow from their livestock.

Where the animals are owned or managed by women, as is often the case with smaller species, income from them tends to be used directly for buying food, and loss of this income has an adverse effect on household food security 7.

In small herds and flocks, a certain level of risk is accepted and occasional disease outbreaks are taken as part of normal operation. However, in a widespread outbreak or culling operation where depopulation spans several villages, the safety-net herds and flocks kept with relatives may also be destroyed, leaving no easy means to restock.

Even where effective compensation schemes are in place, they seldom cover the cost of lost production time and lost cash flow. In many countries, compensation is limited or faces considerable administrative challenges, which results in payments being inadequate or very delayed.

Distress suffered by farmers over destruction of apparently healthy animals is an additional although unquantified impact of widespread culling. Many farm families in Britain suffered from psychological shock after the FMD outbreak in Britain as did many of the culling teams. More recently, scenes of distraught children hiding birds from culling teams, and farmers refusing to let cullers enter their villages, have been a regular feature of HPAI control.

If vaccination reduces culling or the incidence of clinical disease, the positive impact on animal welfare can be seen as a benefit in itself, aside from the psychological impact on people who care for livestock. In the CSF outbreak in the Netherlands in and and the FMD outbreak in the UK in , the large number of animals slaughtered as well as the high costs of control raised the question that much earlier use of vaccination in epidemic control may be appropriate 4.

Animal welfare has an increasing importance in the livestock standards of Member Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD and in premium markets for animal products.

At what point, then, should a government decide to bring vaccination into the control process for epidemic disease? An unchecked outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease may kill large numbers of animals.

Halting it by means of a rapid and effective culling scheme will cause short-term distress but very little impact on livelihoods in the long term, particularly if it is possible to provide some form of compensation. When it becomes evident that culling will need to be widespread, or that outbreaks are spreading beyond control, a rapid decision to implement ring vaccination may save the livelihoods of many smallholders.

In the areas of China with median poultry density, using ring vaccination in a 5 km zone with limited culling to stamp out an HPAI outbreak, instead of culling in a 3 km zone, has the potential to save the destruction of over 50, poultry in just one outbreak Vietnam and Hong Kong are using targeted vaccination for control of HPAI, which has reduced both the number of new cases and the scale of culling.

Market shocks from disease outbreaks affect small and large producers, but in different ways, and have varying impacts according to the disease. Market shocks can be caused by consumer worries leading to loss of demand, by very severe depopulation, or by closing of markets on animal health grounds. Zoonotic diseases i. Dating site with girls city Cherkasy. Middlesex dating-tjenester. Yashada knusk datingside. Discover Ivano Frankivsk Board. Mini camara ip-hde gb. EN germany Dating. Hvorfor er jeg interessert i dating.

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