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The Hukbalahap Insurrection: Ramon Magsaysay, Edward Lansdale, and the JUSMAG

After walking for some time, the two realized that they had misjudged the distance and tried to catch a ride with passing motorists. Finally one driver stopped when he saw Lansdale, who was in uniform, but hesitated to give a ride to the other man, whom he did not recognize. Only after Lansdale convinced the Filipino that his companion was the 93 secretary of national defense, did the wary driver permit Magsaysay to get into his car.

When he found graft or corruption he was quick to act against those involved. Then I start thinking that that damn Magsaysay might suddenly show up During his first year in office, Magsaysay was the target of several Huk assassination attempts. Fortunately, all of these attempts failed and in one case, the agent was "turned" after having a long discussion with Magsaysay. Leaving the mountains with grenades and pistols hidden in his clothing, he went to Manila where, while watching the secretary's office, he overheard a group of citizens talking about Magsaysay.

To his great surprise, they were praising the secretary as a new national hero. When young Santiago challenged their contentions, he was taken aside by a former guerrilla leader and told that he 94 should talk to Magsaysay to see if what he heard was indeed the truth.

The following morning, Santiago did just that. After an hour of often heated debate, Santiago shook Magsaysay's hand, turned his weapons over to the secretary, and told him, "I came to kill you.

Now please, let me work for you. This episode however, should not suggest that Magsaysay's personality and charisma overcame all adversity -- it did not. Several other assassins arrived in Manila, but they too failed to kill Magsaysay.

The secretary was by then living with Lansdale in a Manila residence quietly protected by a special team of Filipino bodyguards who specialized in stealth and night operations. Although never publicized,. One might wonder why these attacks were kept secret -- Lansdale recalls Magsaysay saying that it would be best to remain silent and let Taruc wonder what happened to his men, ie, were they killed or had they deserted.

This relationship provided an effective conduit through which American advice affected Philippine actions during this period. To overlook 95 Lansdale's role would be to neglect a significant chapter of this story.

The relationship began in when they first met at a Washington reception for the visiting Secretary of National Defense. Magsaysay came to the United States to encourage U. Lansdale, who served as an intelligence officer for the OSS and the Military Intelligence Service in the Philippines during the war and who had but recently been promoted to lieutenant colonel, was then teaching intelligence and counter-guerrilla operations at the Air Force Strategic Intelligence School at Lowry Air Force Base.

Lansdale received a call from an old friend, Philippine Colonel Montemayor, telling him that he should meet the new Philippine secretary. Myer reception, Lansdale caught both Magsaysay's ear and imagination. Shortly after his arrival in the Philippines with his assistant, U. Army Maj. Charles T. Bohannan, Lansdale was invited to dinner by Magsaysay at his home near Manila.

Concerned with visible guerrilla activity in the neighborhood and the lack of security for the Secretary, Lansdale invited him to share his room in the house he lived in within the JUSMAG compound in Manila. Magsaysay accepted the offer, sent his wife and children back to his wife's family on Bataan, and moved in with the U.

Thus began the intimate relationship that existed between the two military men until Magsaysay's untimely death in Often the two talked long into the night about conditions that fostered the insurrection and about the real need for governmental and social reforms as a prelude to a permanent solution to the Huk problem. Early each morning the Secretary would rouse Lansdale from his bed and together they made daily inspection tours around the nation.

To maintain this close personal contact, Lansdale obtained special permission from the Chief of JUSMAG, General Hobbs, to make these forays into contested areas to see firsthand the condition of the Philippine armed forces. It was during these visits, and during frequent informal coffee-chats, that Lansdale was able to discuss the real causes for the insurrection with Magsaysay, his assistants, and other concerned government officials.

Shortly thereafter, Magsaysay took steps to revitalize the military, improve pay and morale, eliminate corrupt officers, and foster his campaign to win the people back to the central government. As part of the rejuvenation campaign, Lansdale, with Magsaysay's active support, helped establish intelligence schools and a Philippine Military Intelligence Corps.

As graduates from these schools joined forces in the field, battalion combat team commanders became convinced of the importance of intelligence to their operations, the battle began to shift to the government. During the next few years, programs initiated by Magsaysay gradually took the revolution away from the Huks. The people saw clear evidence of military professionalism, competence, and honesty quite a dramatic change and through the military's behavior, began to realize that Magsaysay was working for their benefit.

The soldiers became heros to the people, "White Hats," and received more and more of their active support. After completing his first French lesson, Lansdale was called at home by President Magsaysay and asked to return to the Philippines. Lansdale told his old friend that he was unable to come back but, after the Philippine President made another call to President Eisenhower, Lansdale found himself in Manila early in This time, he was only able to remain until May, when he was ordered to continue on to Vietnam "to do there what you did in the Philippines.

First and foremost, he dealt with Magsaysay and the Filipinos as friends and equals. Filipinos viewed friendship as a deeper and longerlived relationship than Americans did. To them, friendship involved total acceptance into their most valued social institution -- the family.

Trusting the Filipinos, allowing them to form their own solutions to their problems with a minimum of interference, and always treating them as equals were Lansdale's keys to success. He advised them on counter-guerrilla tactics and helped them lessen their reliance on conventional operations, but he always made sure they were responsible for the decisions. He maintained a low-profile and allowed Filipinos to take credit for successful operations, concurrently building pride and confidence in the AFP and their fellow countrymen.

As retired Maj. Lansdale so aptly put it, the Filipinos best knew the problems, best knew how to solve them, and did it -- with U. Whether by purpose or default the combination of money, war surplus equipment, and good sound advice found fertile ground with Ramon Magsaysay. With the American assistance, he defeated the insurrection. Of these failures, the greatest were misjudging the seriousness of the situation until , and the importance of nationalism and land ownership to the average Filipino.

At the same time, Congress passed a special act permitting the sale at cost of surplus military equipment to the Philippines. In addition, Congress allocated an undetermined amount of grant aid for the government under the Military Defense Assistance Act. All of this was made easier after 25 June when North Korean troops crossed the international boundary into South Korea and the United States entered the Korean War. During the summer of , while U. They found the primary problem to be political-economic instability and concluded that progress would be impossible without broadbased American assistance.

The Huks were suppressed only after Luzon's peasant class was assisted by progressive social and economic changes that allowed them to shift their allegiance back to the central government and away from the guerrillas. Without this basic change, military operations alone could not have defeated the guerrillas, but it would require time to incorporate such a broad attack.

Lansdale commented about the lack of attention even in the summer of They dwelt almost exclusively on the military situation. It was as though military affairs were the sole tangible factor they could grasp. The JUSMAG increased in size and became the executive agent for American military assistance to the Philippines under the general guidance of the ambassador, not the Commander-in-Chief Pacific as had previously been the case.

In August , Maj. His proposals to increase the size of the JUSMAG with officers to advise Philippine military service and branch chiefs were incorporated in Although documentation detailing the composition of the JUSMAG officially set its strength at "such numbers as required," an earlier draft showed the JUSMAG would consist of thirty-two officers and twenty-six enlisted men, nearly double the previous strength of seventeen and twenty-one.

In May , Maj. Robert M. Cannon succeeded General Pierson as Chief Advisor. Under the guidance of the American ambassador, it would provide advice and assistance to key members of the military, administer the Mutual Defense Assistance Program that financed end items, help train the AFP, and promote standardization within it. Prior to this time, aid requested by JUSMAG was received, but the amounts were limited and consistently fell below the amount requested.

Also, it does not appear that denial of this request would seriously retard development of Philippine defense forces beyond the capability of the Philippine government to control. With the exception of heavy engineer equipment that was diverted to Korea, the Department of Defense approved most of the new requests and shipped the equipment to Manila.

For example, in the three months from April to July, the Philippine armed forces received fifteen million rounds of small arms and mortar ammunition, several armored cars, light trucks, and thirty-four F aircraft from Pacific and CONUS war surplus stocks.

Other materials received by the JUSMAG and passed to the armed forces in included various types of small arms, machine guns, mortars, light artillery, wheeled cargo vehicles, and a few light and medium tanks. Magsaysay first sought these special funds in a letter to Secretary of Defense Johnson in April. These funds were not for the purchase of equipment, as might be expected, but rather, were earmarked to pay the existing government troops and to allow the government to increase the number of battalion combat teams in the Philippine Army from ten to twenty-six.

Approved by President Truman, this special request seems to have put the Army over the top. Corruption began to decline, due to increased pay and the efforts of the new Secretary of National Defense; and the armed forces became more professional and effective. Soldiers, now able to purchase rations from the local villagers and provide for their families, began to feel better about their mission.

This attitude change had far reaching effects for both the soldier and the peasant alike. The soldier gained prestige, a sense of nationalism, and felt that he was fighting Huks to protect his country and his fellow countrymen. The peasant was relieved as the police and military finally began to protect him, and no longer used him as a handy supply house.

The unit, sparked by an idea passed to Secretary Magsaysay by Lt. Lansdale, was intended to be emplaced behind enemy lines to act as a mobile blocking force during large operations. Although the necessary equipment and training was provided, the airborne company was never employed as planned.

It was also during that the JUSMAG embarked upon an expanded program to provide the military with professional education and training. Quotas for officers and enlisted men from all three Philippine services were obtained for military and technical schools in the United States. Encompassing schools from all three U. This allowed Magsaysay to achieve the twenty-six BCTs that he desired.

Luis Taruc saw the tide of battle changing and blamed the United States for the government's good fortunes. At this junction, an important change took place in JCS philosophy. American military advisors were permitted, for the first time, to accompany government forces into the field, a suggestion first raised by the MDAP survey mission.

Prior to this time, JCS policy prohibited advisors with only two exceptions, Lt. Lansdale and his assistant, Maj. Bohannan from taking the field with their counterparts. At these times, they note and report on the tactics employed and utilization made of MDAP equipment. By accompanying AFP units in the field from time-to-time, The situation in the Philippines had reversed by and was favoring the government, now under the leadership of President Magsaysay: Relying heavily on American aid and advice from the JUSMAG, Manila was winning the battle against the insurgents and improving the economy throughout the islands.

The military had been reorganized, increased in size and efficiency, and was now viewed by the peasants as a protector rather than as an oppressor. The AFP numbered some 51, troops, of which The remaining forces were divided between the Police Constabulary 7, , general headquarters and special units 7, , and combat support and service units and the small Air Force and Navy. Special community projects were funded that built schools, roads, and health clinics in areas long forgotten about by previous administrations.

In yet another large development program, thousands of new wells were dug across Luzon and on the southern islands to provide the people with fresh, clean water. Edwin J. McCarren, Personal Leadership: Army War College, [8 April ] , p. Clarence G. Barrens, I Promise: Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, [] , p. Barrens, I Promise, p. Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Van Rees Press, , p. Irwin D. Army War College, [24 January ] , p.

Robert R. Smith, The Hukbalaha Insurgency: Office of the Chief of Military History, [] , p. William L. Ismael Lapus Col. Bragg, NC: McCarren, Personal Leadership, p. Peterson, G. Reinhardt, and E.

Conger, eds. The Rand Corporation,. Smith, The Hukbalahap Insurgency, p. William B. Steele, Internal Defense in the Philippines: US Army War College, [] , p.

Peterson, et al. In the first year of the program, Magsaysay received 59, telegrams, each of which was answered in three days or less. Clifford M. Army War College, [], p. Romulo, The Magsaysay Story, p. Reginald J. Army War College, 26 March , p. Bohannan, CounterGuerrilla Operations: Praeger, , p. Philippines, Washington, D. American Institute for Research, [] , p. Smith, The Hukbalahap Insurrection, p. Smith, Philippine Operations, p. McGraw-Hill Book Company, , p. Richard M.

Noong nagtapos ang pamumuno ng mga Kastila noong , marami nang mga gusali sa loob ng kompleks ng Malakanyang na karamihan ay yari sa kahoy, na may bintanang capiz, patio at azotea. Matapos ang digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano ay napasailalim ang Pilipinas sa pamumuno ng mga Amerikano.

Naging tirahan ang Palasyo ng mga Gobernador Henral ng Amerika. Noong itinatag ang Pamahalaang Komonwelt noong 15 Nobyembre ay naging tirahan ang Malakanyang ng mga Pangulo ng Pilipinas. Si Manuel L. Quezon ang unang Pilipinong residente ng Palasyo.

Simula noon ay naging opisyal na tirahan ang Malakanyang ng mga pangulo ng Pilipinas. Ang isa sa mga malaking ginawang pagsasaayos ng mga Amerikano ay ang solusyon sa pagkontrol sa baha. Dahil karaniwang binabaha ang pampang ng Ilog Pasig ay isinagawa ang reklamasyon sa Ilog Pasig ng 15 talampakan at itinayo ang isang kongkretong pader. Ginawang bulwagang sosyal ang unang palapag na noon ay bodega. Sa kabila ng matinding pinsala na tinamo ng Maynila noong pagtatapos ng Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig ay nananatiling nakatayo ang Palasyo ng Malakanyang, isa sa mga natatanging gusaling nakatayo pagkatapos ng mga pagbobomba.

Ang tangi lamag pinsala na natamo ng Palasyo ay nasa timog-kanlurang bahagi nito, kung saan matatagpuan ang Pang-estadong Silid Kainan at ang silid pangserbisyo nito, kung saan ito ay napinsala ng pagbobomba. Macapagal[ baguhin baguhin ang batayan ] Noong nanirahan si Pangulong Diosdado Macapagal sa palasyo, napagtanto niya na nangangailangan na ito ng malakihang pagkukumpuni. Isinagawa ng unang Ginang Eva Macapagal ang malakihang proyekto na magpapaganda sa kompleks.

Sa gawaing ito, maraming pinalayas na mga naglalako sa bangketa at ginawang mga hardin ang mga maputik na lugar. Kasalukuyan[ baguhin baguhin ang batayan ] Si Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos at ang kaniyang asawang si Imelda ang pinakamatagal na nanirahan sa Palasyo, mula hanggang Matapos ang pagtangkang pagsugod sa Palasyo ng mga estudyante noong dekada 70, idineklara ang Batas Militar , at isinara ang buong Palasyo maging ang pumapalibot na lugar nito mula sa publiko. Ang Ilog Pasig, na siyang malinis noong ika siglo, ay nagkaroon ng masangsang na amoy noong dekada 70 at nagsilbi pang tirahan ng mga lamok.

Sa pagitan ng , pinasinayaan ni Gng. Marcos ang mga proyekto sa Palasyo ayon sa kaniyang marangyang panlasa. Giniba ang halos buong orihinal na Palasyo at ginawan ito ng bago hindi lamang upang matustos ang pangangailangan ng Pamilyang Marcos, kundi dahil na rin ang buong gusali ay halos pinagtagpi-tagpi na lamang ang mga kasiraan na nabuo ng napkahabang panahon, na mayroong mga tagas sa bubungan at marupok na sahig. Ang bagong gusali ay yari na sa kongkreto at bakal, ang mga sahig ay tinakpan ng magagarang mga kahoy, at nilapatan na rin ito ng proteksyon kontra sa bala at pangkalahatang air conditioning, at may sarili din itong pinagkukunan ng kuryente.

Ang pagpapatayo ng bagong Palasyo ay pinasinayaan ni Arkitekto Jorge Ramos sa ilalim ng mahigpit na superbisyon ni Gng. Pinasinayaan ang bagong Palasyo noong 1 Mayo, , ang ika anibersaryo ng mag-asawang Marcos. Inilantad ng mga namamahayag sa buong mundo ang luho ng pamilyang Marcos oras bago sila lumikas patungong Hawaii, kasama rito ang libu-libong mga koleksyon ng Sapatos ni Gng. Kinalaunan ay binuksan muli sa publiko ang panguahing Plasyo at ginawa itong museo.

Upang mailayo ang kaniyang sarili mula sa dungis ng Ikaapat na Republika, pinili ni Pangulong Corazon Aquino na manirahan sa kalapit na Mansyong Arlegui ngunit pinagpatuloy pa rin ang pagganap ng tungkuling pangpamahalaan sa Gusaling Ehekutubo.

Ganito din ang ginawa ng kaniyang kahaliling si Pangulong Fidel Ramos. Matapos ang pangalawang Rebolusyon sa Edsa, hinigpitan ang seguridad sa palasyo dahil sa mga pagtangkang patalsikin ang pamahalaan.

Pinanatili din ang kapilya bagaman iba ang pananampalataya ng Pamilyang Ramos na siyang mga Protestante.

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