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Andhra Pradesh Andhra Prasesh: The legacy of Kammas in the modern history of Andhra Pradesh: Their embrace of education. Among the non-Brahmin communities, Kammas were one of the first to take to education in large numbers. Over a period of 10 years, in Guntur District alone, High schools were established by their initiative.
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The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period.
The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military. Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished.
Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature. The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due.
The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan. The most important of these temples are those at Palampeta, Hanamkonda and the incomplete one in the Warangal fort.
The temple at Palampeta, described as the 'brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture', was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in S. The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls.
The sculptures, especially of the dancing girls, possess the suggestion of movement and pulsating life. A striking peculiarity of this temple is the figure-brackets which spring from the shoulders of the outer pillars of the temple.
The figure-brackets are mere ornaments and represent the intermediate stage between their earlier analogues at Sanchi and the later examples at Vijayanagara.
This temple, dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands, the beautiful entrances to the shrine, the pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.
The temple in the Warangal fort, believed to have been built by Kakatiya Ganapati, was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called 'Kirti Stambhas' which face the four cardinal points of the compass.
In their design the gateways are reminiscent of the 'toranas' of the Great Stupa at Sanchi. The architecture and sculpture of these temples are thus conventional to a degree but no one can deny their magnificence nor can any one fail to see the rich imagination, patient industry and skilful workmanship of the builders of the temples of the Kakatiya period.
Fall of the dynasty The queen Rudramadevi was succeeded by her grandson Prataparudra Prataparudra expanded borders towards the west, whilst introducing many administrative reforms, some of which were also later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire.
However, the empire was under threat from the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Despite defeating the first wave of attack from the Delhi Sultanate in , in the invading army defeated the King. After agreeing to a large tribute the kingdom was spared. However, after Khilji's death the tribute was withheld which provoked the final and fatal attack on the Kingdom in Prataparudra was captured by Ulugh Khan later known as Muhammad bin Tughluq and died en route to Delhi.
The Kakatiya dynasty ended and resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime. Two cousins belonging to Musunuri clan kapayya nayudu and prola nayudu who served as army chiefs for Kakatiya kingdom later united the Telugu people and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century. Legacy The Kakatiya dynasty is regarded as one of the golden ages in Telugu history. The kingdom was ruled by Telugu speaking hindu rulers who encouraged literature, art and architecture.
The Thousand-pillar Temple in Hanmakonda now merged with Warangal stands as testimony to this. And the famous Kohinoor diamond which was unearthed near the Golconda fort during their reign, was among the booty carried. Khilji subsequently murdered the Sultan and took over the reins of the Sultanate. The glory and wealth of the Kakatiya kingdom attracted the attention of Khilji.
It was a disaster because of the valiant resistance of the Kakatiya army in the battle at Upparapalli Karim Nagar District.
The second attempt was made in by Malik Kafur who managed to capture Siripur and Hanumakonda forts. Warangal fort was taken after a prolonged seize. Malik Kafur indulged in murder and mayhem around the fort which prompted King Prataparudra to make a pact and offer an enormous amount of tribute. Prataparudra asserted his independence in when there was a change of power in Delhi.
The Khilji dynasty ended and Ghiasuddin Tughlak ascended the Delhi throne. Tughlak sent his son Ulugh Khan in to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king. The unprepared and battle-weary army of Warangal was finally defeated. The loot, plunder and destruction of Warangal continued for months. Loads of gold, diamonds, pearls and ivory were carried away to Delhi on elephants and camels. The Kohinoor diamond was part of the booty. The large population was forcibly converted to Islam, women were raped and molested and mosques were erected over the demolished temples.
The vandalism and cruel atrocities of the Muslim army demoralized the common people who were unfamiliar with the methods adopted by the invaders. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. He committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada while being taken to Delhi. However, the Nayak chiefs valiantly fought during the hour of the need. Many Nayak chiefs were captured, converted to Islam and sent back as governors.
These included Harihara and Bukka who later established Vijayanagar kingdom at Hampi. The year was a turning point in the history of Telugu country. After the fall of Warangal, Muslim armies marched forward and captured Kondapalli, Kondaveedu, Rajahmundry, Nidadavole, Nellore, and Kolanuveedu forts.
Hoyasala and Kampili kingdoms Karnataka also became part of the Sultanate. The conquest of South India was complete.
The following years witnessed all round misery, destruction, oppression, forcible conversion, pillage and plunder. The Telugu country was in great turmoil and ferment. Seeds of revolution were sown. Two patriotic souls, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva exhorted and united the remaining Nayak chieftains. They instilled a sense of unity and sacrifice to protect the Telugu country and Hindu Dharma. He is Musunuri Prolayanayak Prolaaneedu , a brave and battle-hardy warrior.
Prolaya was the son of Pochinayak who had three brothers namely Devanayak, Kammanayak and Rajanayak. The son of Devanayak was Kaapayanayak Kaapaneedu who was the right hand man of Prolaya. Prolaya galvanized all the Nayaks and their progeny and united them with his organizational skills. The Nayaks set aside their differences and rallied under the leadership of Prolaya to safeguard the Hindu Dharma.
Triumph and Freedom Battles were fought at all levels at a great cost and independence was achieved after many a sacrifice.
Nayak armies liberated Warangal by and drove away Muslims from Telugu country. Many of the inscriptions glorified the victories of Prolaya and the statecraft he practiced. The cousins strengthened the forts, rebuilt the temples, restored village grants to Brahmins and encouraged arts and literature.
Ageing Prolaya retired to Rekapalli fort East Godavari district after vesting the power in younger and more dynamic Kaapaya. Inspired by the victories of the cousins, other kingdoms like Kampili, Hoyasala, Dwarasamudram and Araveedu asserted independence. Historical evidence showed that the Nayaks actively assisted other kings to achieve freedom from the Sultanate. Harihara and Bukka who were captured at Warangal by Ulugh Khan and converted to Islam were sent by the Sultan to suppress the rebellion of Hoyasala king.
The brothers, however, switched sides and went on to establish Vijayanagar Kingdom. Jalaluddin Hassan, the governor of Madhura also declared his independence from the Sultan. The Sultan personally led a huge army southward. He reached Warangal but had to make a hasty retreat. He appointed Malik Maqbool as the Governor and left.
Historians opined that a great epidemic prevalent during that time and the formidable resistance of the Nayaks were the reasons for the retreat. Kaapaya wanted to utilize the opportunity to liberate the whole of Telangana including Bidar. He sought the help of Hoyasala king in this endeavour. The Nayaks fought in unison and Kaapaya succeeded in capturing the Warangal fort and l iberating Telangana from the invaders.
The flag of Andhradesa was unfurled on the Warangal fort. He strengthened the forts and replenished the army. However, a new and bigger threat loomed on the horizon. A revolt by a group of Muslim nobles against Muhammed Bin Tughlaq that began in Devagiri in culminated in the foundation of the Bahmani kingdom by Hasan Gangu.
He assumed the name Alauddin Bahman Shah and moved his capital to the more centrally located Gulbarga in Alauddin was an ambitious man and his goal was to conquer the whole of Dakshinapatha Deccan. The Decline The unity fostered by the Musunuri cousins among the Nayaks started showing strains fuelled by envy. Vema Reddy sought the help of Kaapaya who intervened and forced Singama to accept the confederation.
He would soon find Alauddin turn ungrateful. Singama and his sons induced Alauddin to interfere in the affairs of Warangal. Bahmani king was too eager to oblige. Telangana was invaded in He concluded a treaty with Alauddin and surrendered Kaulas fort.
This was the first setback to the unified Telugu kingdom. The death of Mohammed Bin Tughlak in emboldened Alauddin to achieve his goal of expanding his kingdom in Deccan.
He marched into Telangana in with greatly enlarged army and captured many forts including Bhuvanagiri. Alauddin spent a year in Telangana and engaged in another round of destruction and plunder.
He reurned to Gulbarga and died in Mohammed Shah succeeded Alauddin. At this time Kaapaya sent his brave and boisterous son Vinayaka Deva to liberate Kaulas and Bhuvanagiri from Bahmanis. The Vijayanagar king Bukkaraya actively assisted him in this campaign. Vinayaka Deva had initial successes but was eventually defeated, captured and killed in a cruel and ghastly manner. Kaapaya was disheartened but his goal was to destroy Bahmani kingdom. Along with Bukka Raya he planned a great expedition against Bahmanis.
Mohammed Shah got enraged and invaded Telangana again. Golconda and Warangal were subdued. Bukka Raya died during this time. Lack of support from Vijayanagar and non-cooperation from Devarakonda and Rachakonda Nayaks also contributed to the fall of Warangal. Historians feel that Rachakonda Nayaks surreptitiously helped Bahmani king. Mohemmed Shah spent two years in Telangana and wiped out all remnants of Hindu temples. Golconda was chosen as the border between Bahmani and Warangal kingdoms in Kaapaya had to present the turquoise throne and large amounts of tribute to Mohammed Shah.
This was the major setback and turning point in the history of Andhradesa. Singamanayak of Recherla and his sons took advantage of the situation and declared independence.
They marched against Warangal ruled by a weakened and disheartened Kaapaya. The treasury was empty and the army was war-weary. Thus ended the short but glorious reign of Musunuri clan which united the Telugu country, its people and its warriors, and protected Hindu Dharma. The valour, dedication and undaunted spirit of sacrifice of Musunuri Nayaks are unparalleled in the history of Telugu land. After the martyrdom of Kaapaya Nayak there was an en masse migration of Nayaks and their progeny to the Vijayanagar Kingdom.
These Nayaks formed the bulwark of Vijayanagar Empire and bravely defended South India and Hindu dharma for the next two centuries.
Relatives of Kaapaya such as Mummadi and Anavota briefly controlled small areas in the coastal districts which were eventually absorbed into Reddy kingdom.
Nayaks who were unwilling to surrender and serve as vassals were pursued and killed by the Muslim armies. They originally were princes from the Vijayanagar Empire, and Telugu was their native language. The Nayak dynasty at Madurai established a strong bond between the people and the rulers through local government innovations, such as the formation of 72 divisions or paalayams.
The Nayak reign marked a new era in Tamil Nadu, one noted for its vast administrative reforms, the revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi sultans, and the inauguration of a unique architectural style.
The reign consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king Tirumalai Nayak and the queen Rani Mangammal.
Their foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portugese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. The latter appealed to the court of Vijayanagar, and an expendition under Pemmasani Nagama Nayaka was sent to his aid. Nagama easily suppressed the Chola ruler and took Madurai, but then suddenly he threw off his allegiance and declining to help the Pandya, usurped the throne. The Vijayanagar emperor demanded that someone cure the defection: Viswanatha defeated his father, placed him in confinement and at length procured for him the unconditional pardon which doubtless had been the object of his action from the beginning.
Visvanatha obeyed the orders of the Vijayanagar king nominally, in that he placed the Pandya on the throne. But both secret policy and his own interests deterred him from handing over the entire government of the country to the old and feeble dynasty. He set out to rule on his own account.
This was in Viswanatha Nayak — Viswanatha, then, became the first ruler of the Nayak dynasty. Viswanatha is said to have set himself immediately to strengthening his capital and improving the administration of his dominions. He demolished the Pandya rampart and ditch which at that time surrounded merely the walls of Madurai's great temple, and erected in their place an extensive double-walled fortress defended by 72 bastions; and he constructed channels from upper waters of the Vaigai river — perhaps the Peranai and Chittanai dams owe their origins to him to water the country, founding villages in the tracts irrigated by them.
Introduction of the polygar palayakkarar system In his administrative improvements Viswanatha was ably seconded by his prime minister Aryanatha Mudaliar or, as he is still commonly called, Aryanatha , a man born of peasant Vellala parents who had won his way by sheer ability to a high position in the Vijayanagar court. This officer is supposed to have been the founder of "the polygar palayakkarar system", under which the Madurai country was apportioned among 72 chieftains, some of them locals and others Telugu leaders of detachments which had accompanied Vishvanatha from Vijayanagar.
Each was placed in charge of one of the 72 bastions of the Madurai fortifications. They were responsible for the immediate control of their estates. They paid a fixed tribute to the Nayaka kings and maintained a quota of troops ready for immediate service.
These men did much for the country in those days, founding villages, building dams, constructing tanks and erecting temples. Many of them bore the title of Nayakkan, and hence the common "nayakkanur" as a termination to the place names in this district. They also brought with them the gods of the Deccan, and thus we find in Madurai many shrines to Ahobilam and other deities who rarely are worshipped in the Tamil country.
Their successors, the present zamindars of the district, still look upon Aryanatha as a sort of patron saint. Aryanatha also is credited with having constructed the great thousand-pillared mantapam in the Madurai temple. He is commemorated by an equestrian statue which flanks one side of the entrance to the temple.
The statue is still periodically crowned with garlands by modern worshippers. He lived until and had great influence upon the fate of the Nayaka dynasty until his death. Visvanatha added the fort of Trichinopoly to his possessions. The Vijayanagar viceroy who governed the Tanjore country had failed to police the pilgrim roads which ran through Trichinopoly, to the shrines at Srirangam and Ramesvaram, and devotees were afraid to visit those holy places.
Visvanatha exchanged that town for his fort at Vallam, in Tanjore. He then improved the fortifications and town of Trichinopoly, and the temple of Srirangam, and he cleared the banks of the Cauvery river of robbers. Visvanatha had difficulty with some of the local chieftans, who resisted his authority in Tinnevelly, but after vanquishing them he improved that town and district. Visvanatha died aged and honoured in He still is affectionately remembered as having been a great benefactor of his country.
Kumara Krishnappa — Viswanatha Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kumara Krishnappa , who is remembered as having been a brave and politic ruler. A revolt occurred among the polygars, during his reign, but its leader was captured and the trouble was quenched.
Joint Rulers: Kumara Krishnappa was succeeded in by his two sons, who ruled jointly and uneventfully until , when they in turn were succeeded by their two sons, one of whom ruled until Muttu Krishnappa — These were followed by Muttu Krishnappa.
He is credited with having founded the dynasty of the Setupatis of Ramnad, the ancestors of the present Raja of that place, who were given a considerable slice of territory in the Marava country on condition that they suppress crime and protect pilgrims journeying to Rameswaram. These were the beginnings of Ramnad zamindari. He began the construction of the Fort at Dindigul on the Hill, along with the Temple on it, which later was completed by Tirumala Nayaka.
Fall of the Vijayanagar Kingdom, In the Muslim rulers of the Deccan defeated Vijayanagar, the suzerain of the Nayaks, at the battle of Talikota. Vijayanagar had to abandon Bellary and Anantapur, flee their capital, and take refuge at Penukonda in Anantapur, then at Vellore, and then at Chandragiri near Tirupathi, which later granted land to the British East India Company to build a fort at the present day Chennai.
Finally they settled at Vellore in North Arcot. Their governors at Madurai, Gingee and Tanjore still paid them tribute and other marks of respect; but in later years, when their suzerainty became weak, the Nayaks ruled independently.
Tirumala Nayak — Muttu Virappa, mentioned above, was succeeded by the great "Tirumala Nayaka", the most powerful and best-known member of his dynasty, who ruled for thirty-six eventful years. Please see the article devoted to him and his reign at Tirumala Nayaka.
Muttu Alakadri — Tirumala was succeeded by his son Muttu Alakadri, whose first act was to shake off the hated Muslim yoke. He tried to induce the Nayak of Tanjore to join the enterprise, but the move backfired: The Muslim invaders moved against Trichinopoly and Madurai, spreading havoc, while Muttu Alakadri remained inactive behind the walls of the fort. Fortunately for him, the enemy soon had to retire, for their devastations produced a local famine and pestilence from which they themselves suffered terribly.
They made a half-hearted attempt on Trichinopoly and then permitted themselves to be bought off for a very moderate sum. Muttu Alakadri did not long survive their departure, but gave himself over to debauchery with an abandon which soon brought him to a dishonoured grave.