At the time he was named the vice presidential candidate on the Republican . In , Woodrow Wilson broke with a custom dating back to Jefferson's day. As President, Jefferson () refused to continue the custom of a grand One month and four days after becoming President, Woodrow Wilson broke the long On April 8, he became the first since Adams to deliver the Presidential . influenced the exact date of her husband's State of the Union Address.
This is an HTML preview only and some elements such as links or page numbers may dqy incorrect. Thomas P. Ostrom, Rochester, Mn. We appreciated the professionalism, guidance and support of David St. I am especially grateful to my wife Mary Lamal Ostrom who shares my Wisconsin origins and whose encouragement and support made this book possible. The Great Jin dating rumors expanse, frightening storms, and extremes of humid continental climate challenge the U. Coast Guard personnel so appropriately da there.
He claimed to have seen "things like ships" in the sky over Italy. The official conclusion of the project was that no evidence of extraterrestrials or extraterrestrial vehicles existed.
This unidentified flying object, which appeared just after dusk, was a single luminous object about 30 degrees above the horizon that Carter estimated to be about to yards away. Carter and about a dozen other men watched the object for about 10 to 12 minutes as it hovered, changed course several times, and eventually disappeared in the distance. On September 24, , General Yoritsume and his army observed mysterious globes of light flying loops in the night sky near Kyoto, Japan.
The General's advisors told him not to worry -- it was merely the wind blowing the stars about. Wickedclown , A lot of trivia mixed with a good story. From rationing of material, I guess that sure does make sense! And it was named after Bikini Atoll. I always wondered if the names were related. Dodge, was assailed by heavy winter seas and snow and freezing fog and water vapor. In subzero temperatures, the Ungala lost her radio antennae which snapped under ice, and an estimated tons of ice gave the cutter a starboard list of 20 degrees.
A hot water hose, axes and coal shovels were wielded by crew members to even the keel and get to the security of the port of Yakutat. When in port, the cutter officers boarded and inspected fishing and other commercial vessels, and requested that they stay in port during the inclement weather. The ship surgeon treated crews and civilians in the area and shared his medical knowledge with a missionary.
The Androscoggin was a small hospital ship staffed with a Public Health Service physician-surgeon and staff which sailed from Boston to serve deep sea fishing vessels of any nationality. A flag on a schooner mast alerted the medics that attention was needed. Between the Androscoggin treated more than fishermen and came to the aid of ships in other ways.
Ice Patrol cutters usually had a surgeon on board and a sick bay with appropriate medical supplies. The Steamboat Inspection Service licensed merchant sailors but was unable to ascertain the proficiency of all of the thousands of mariners who required training and testing. Competent Coast Guard officers and enlisted personnel, including lighthouse keepers, rose to the occasion and licensed or rejected hundreds of merchant seamen. Thus, another function was given to the Coast Guard which eventually assumed the full responsibility for the licensing process Johnson, R.
Orville and Wilber Wright changed transportation, warfare and search and rescue with their mechanical skills, intuition and courage. The two bicycle mechanics and manufacturers experimented with gliders and motor powered aircraft.
In , they launched the first piloted, heaver than air, motor powered aircraft at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In the U. Army purchased one of their air planes. Glenn Curtis Company made a flying boat , and the U. Navy purchased a few aircraft and started training pilots from their Pensacola, Florida base. Aircraft were used as fighter and surveillance craft in World War I Evans, p. Coast Guard aviation began in when Lieutenants Norman B. Hall and Elmer F. Stone, stationed on board the Norfolk, Va.
Chiswell, to let them use borrowed aircraft on search missions Johnson, R. Lieutenant Hall was sent to study aeronautical engineering at the Curtiss Airplane and Motor Company. Lieutenant Stone, with several other officers and enlisted men, was assigned to formal flight training at Pensacola.
Wintry North Atlantic gales inflicted rudder and mast destruction upon coastal sailing schooners which could not report their positions in an accurate or punctual manner without benefit of radio communication.
Rescue operations by the Onondaga and sister cutters were therefore often delayed at risk to vessels and crews because of the necessarily extended search patterns. The advent of air search and rescue proved to be of inestimable value Evans, pp. Coast Guard ship and air station construction were put on hold.
On April 6, , the United States issued a declaration of war against Germany. Having served gallantly in that conflict, the Revenue Marine was called upon to augment the U. Navy in other military conflicts. The War of challenged U. They had to face the formidable British fleet on the high seas and inland waters in what some historians have called The Second War of Independence.
And British ships had used force to prevent U. In the course of searching U. The competence of American naval forces was quickly illustrated on September 10, on Lake Erie.
Perry suspended his ship building activities and engaged the British Navy. When his flagship was destroyed in the battle, Perry transferred to another ship and continued the fight.
Harrison, his colleague in arms in the Ohio theater: It also facilitated the defeat of Britains Indian allies and the formidable Shawnee warrior, Tecumseh, and put the Northwest back in American control. Wasp conquered the British warship Frolic off the Virginia shore. Despite these defeats, the British Navy achieved several victories and maintained a coastal embargo which dislocated U.
Internal dissent threatened the war effort. Anti-war leaders even threatened the secession of the New England states from the Union. British troops challenged American forces after landing soldiers at Cape Cod Massachusetts and on the shores of Chesapeake Bay.
They defeated U. British troops swept through Washington, D. Madison to abandon their meal and flee to Virginia. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities, Congress fortuitously authorized the construction of 12 new Revenue cutters which averaged tons, crews of about 20, and several light guns, a significant addition to U. In a battle off Long Island, the outgunned Eagle was driven ashore but continued the fight from an island bluff with muskets, and guns taken from the cutter.
The British ship withdrew. Captain Lee refloated the Eagle the next day, only to be surprised and captured by the enemy after waging battle. On July 4th, the Surveyor further distinguished the Revenue Marine by capturing a British ship which had sailed from Jamaica. With a crew of Navy volunteers the cutter captain maneuvered his heavily outgunned Vigilant against the privateer Dart. After a cannon duel, the crew boarded and captured the British ship.
Revenue Service captures of British vessels not only boosted the morale of the Americans in their battle against British military forces, but deprived the enemy of vital supplies and finances. When the U. Revenue Cutter James C. Madison took control of the Shamrock in July , it escorted a ton warship carrying 16 men and 6 guns into Savannah harbor and removed that military threat from the sea.
The skill and courage of cutter crews is exemplified by the fact that they often went into battle heavily outgunned and out manned. S Dispatch, the cutter carried six fourpound cannons against the British warships eighteen thirtypound cannons against the British warships eighteen thirty 8.
The inconclusive war drew to a mutually desirable close on December 24th, , when diplomatic representatives from the United States and United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Ghent Belgium. Neither side claimed victory or conceded defeat. New lands were not acquired. General Andrew Jackson defeated strong British forces at the battle of New Orleans 8 January, , unaware the Treaty of Ghent had been signed weeks earlier.
The battle did, however, influence post-war interpretations and applications, and forced the international community to recognize U. The Battle of New Orleans proved the United States matched British military might and was a player in international diplomacy. The victory paved the way for military hero Andrew Jackson to claim the presidency in the Election of Johnson, P. Andrew Jacksons military exploits also sparked the Seminole Wars ; which can be traced to the incursion into Spanish Florida by U.
The Seminole bravely defended their lands. Military pressure forced the Seminoles across the Mississippi River. Seminole leader Osceola refused to migrate and led his followers in a long war against U. Osceola was treacherously captured at a truce conference and imprisoned in Fort Moultrie in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, where he died Tindall, pp. The Revenue Service got involved in the Seminole wars when the customs collector at New Orleans sent the cutters Dallas and Jackson to relieve the Gulf coastal towns of of St.
Marks and Tampa from Seminole warriors. In his dispatch, Captain Webb, commanding the U. Vandalia, commended the crews of the 10 revenue cutters who participated in the Seminole Wars: Navy and U. Army called forth the highest commendations. Their light draft permitted operations which no frigate could have accomplished in the shallows off the Florida west coast. Cutter crews were offered homestead lands by grateful officials.
The years between and Civil War placed other duties upon the Revenue Marine which was ordered to protect merchant shipping, save lives and property, and suppress piracy and the slave trade. The Dallas performed similar operations off the Georgia coast. The Florida Keys and waters off New Orleans were other pirate haunts. The Revenue Marine had to respond to piracy on the high seas to protect domestic and foreign trade routes. Cutters Louisiana and Alabama were constructed in to battle the pirate fleets.
The cutters were 6 feet in depth, 17 feet abeam, and had a length of 57 feet. They were assisted by other cutters which shared patrol duties in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Florida coasts. Piracy, thanks primarily to the Revenue Service, was virtually driven from U. Fraser was an early advocate of the iron and steam powered vessels which eventually eclipsed the graceful, wooden sailing cutters. Initial engineering and mechanical problems in the steam fleet caused conflicts between Fraser and his supervisors which for a time damaged his career.
Captain Frasers experience on both merchant vessels and Revenue cutters in peace and war gave him the credibility necessary to impose the military structure and administrative reforms which served so well in the Mexican War of and subsequent service missions Kaplan and Hunt, pp. The objective was the geopolitical and strategic control of as much of North America as possible. The rationale was based on imperialistic high mindedness; a quest for national stability; and an alleged humanitarian obligation to Christianize and civilize the societies, peoples and nations which blocked U.
The Spanish conquests of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries came to an end in a series of rebellions which led to the independence of Mexico from colonial control in Spanish-Mexican territory extended into what is now the U. Southwest and California.
Mexicos northern frontier was sparsely populated and invited the mi gration of European Americans from the United States, indigenous Indian populations, and Spanish-speaking settlers. In , Texans rebelled and declared independence from Mexico. The Mexican army invaded Texas and achieved an initial battle success at the mission-fortress of the Alamo.
Subsequent military defeats forced the Mexicans to reluctantly acknowledge the sovereignty of the Republic of Texas After failing to convince the Mexican government to sell its northern provinces, and, at the request of the Texas government, the United States annexed Texas in Having officially acknowledged neither the independence or annexation of Texas, Mexico declared war on the United States and sent troops into the disputed territory north of the Rio Grande.
Several prominent U. Grant, who served in Mexico with fellow officers he would later fight in the Civil War: Navy and Revenue Marine, by law part of the Navy in war time, contributed to the conquest of Mexico by enforcing naval blockades and supplying, transporting and supporting Army and Marine Corps troops. The naval theater of operations reached from New Orleans to the eastern Gulf coast of Mexico, the Campeche Gulf and along the western shore of the Yucatan Peninsula.
On the Pacific coast, the naval blockade extended from the latitude of Mexico City, and northwest along the Baja California Peninsula to San Francisco. The northern Gulf region was patrolled by navy and cutter vessels which protected commercial vessels from pirates. Captain Farnifold Green of the U. Revenue Marine commanded the cutter Woodbury with distinction in that area in the s.
Army Commanding General Zachary Taylor, and convoying troop and supply vessels. Bliss, Assistant Adjutant General, U. Captain John A. Webster, USRM, commanded a cutter squadron with orders to conduct revenue and war operations from the Rio Grande to the Mississippi, and cooperate with the Army and Navy.
Webster understood the U. Webster commanded sail and steam cutters. Two of the steamers had machinery problems and had to return to home port. The three remaining steamers were more heavily armed than the lighter sailing cutters, but the latter had shallower draft which allowed for more effective operations inshore and across river sand bars.
The cutter steamers in the mission, Bibb and McLane, each carried four 22 pounders and one or two 18 pound pivot weapons. The steam cutter Legare had an 18 pounder and lighter weapons. The McLane was commanded by Captain W. The Forward was under Captain H. Perry, USN, from his flag ship, U.
On the Tobasco River of Mexico, a U. Navy vessel ran aground and suffered withering shore fire which wounded and killed several crewmen. The cutter Forward closed in and protected the naval vessel with cannon and small arms fire until the ship was able to free itself and sail on with the convoy.
Commodore Perry then ordered the cutters McLane and Forward to river and blockade duty. Captain Websters cutter convoy carried mail, supplies, rifles, and troops; and performed scouting, convoy, blockade, towing, revenue and law enforcement duties.
The Mexican War ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , signed in a village outside of Mexico City under the watchful eye of the victorious U. The cost to the United States: A customs district was established in the Pacific Northwest and California, and revenue laws were enforced. The revenue cutter Lawrence was assigned to the district. Captain Fraser, at his own request, assumed command.
Subsequent law enforcement duties during the Gold Rush era earned Captain Fraser further acclaim in the annals of maritime history Kaplan and Hunt, The danger that confronted 19th century mariners is illustrated by the SS Central America, a side wheel sail and steamer enroute from Panama to New York.
Its passengers returning from the California gold fields with 20 tons of gold on board under the command of Captain William Herndon, a distinguished mariner and explorer. The vessel engaged an Atlantic hurricane for several days. On September 12, , after a courageous battle by crew and passengers, the ship sank off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, at the cost of lives, including the gallant skipper who went down with his ship.
Several hundred survivors were rescued by the lifeboat skills of crew members, and the timely arrival of two heavily damaged vessels. The United States Coast Guard provided assistance in the s during the salvage operations of the Central America Kinder, ; ; ; The Confederacy was a states rights oriented political association modeled after the Articles of Confederation which governed the United States after the Revolutionary War.
Jefferson Davis, West Point graduate and former U. President Lincolns immediate post-secession objectives were to preserve the Union by persuasion, hold on to remaining federal lands, collect duties and deliver the mail. The causes of the Civil War were decades in the making and germinated by the different geography and socioeconomic systems of the North and South. Europe was a market for Southern plantation crops, especially the cotton which fed the British textile industry.
Northern members of Congress generally favored high tariffs to protect the interests of industry. Southern congressmen believed high U. The South favored a states rights philosophy which opposed federal Northern control of the Southern way of life. Slavery was a causal factor in the Civil War, but not the only one. Most Southerners did not own slaves. General Robert E. Lee, the predominant CSA military commander, deplored slavery.
The eminent Virginian, like most rebels, was fighting for the independence of his home state. General P. Beauregard responded with a 30 hour bombardment, forcing Major Robert Anderson to surrender after using up his food and ammunition.
No battle deaths occurred, but two Union soldiers were killed when a cannon used in the surrender ceremony exploded. President Lincoln reacted by asking all the Union states to contribute militia to supplement federal land and sea forces. On April 19 Lincoln ordered a blockade of southern ports. The battle was a dual victory, but the Virginia was scuttled when the Confederates lost the port of Norfolk Virginia to Union troops Tindall, pp.
Naval forces were recent beneficiaries of technological innovations. Side-wheel and propeller screw steamers and sail vessels, with sail and steam sometimes combined, plied the waterways. The less industrialized South built very few ships, but acquired Union vessels when some U.
Both sides sank or captured enemy vessels. CSA intermediaries contracted for ships to be built in Britain and France. The following designations indicated national origin and military service. Union vessels had several designations. USAT was U. Army Transport. USCS was a vessel from the U. Coast Survey. Most blockade runners, Southern ships trying to get supplies past Union patrols, were usually privately owned and mission certified with government documentation Silverstone, pp.
The Confederate Navy lacked the Unions industrial capacity and security and had to improvise. Southern engineers designed ironclad rams for defense and ramming. Submarines were developed, but often sank, drowning their crews. Union naval forces challenged Confederate control on the Red, Tennessee, Cumberland, Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and a few others. The Union victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi forced the river wars to be fought on less strategic but still significant waterways.
The United States Revenue Service possessed only 28 ships in Rebel forces took control of six of the vessels. Four were patrolling the Pacific coast.
Five Great Lakes ships were shifted to the Atlantic coast. Navy, fired the first naval round at Ft. The cutter Caleb Cushing was captured by Confederate forces off the coast of Maine in and destroyed when U.
At the end of the war, the U. The transfer of ships between military services and from military to commercial agencies challenges historians who wish to chronicle the history of maritime vessels. The nautical engineering ingenuity of the CSA is illustrated by its pioneering development of electrically detonated underwater mines.