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AIX 5. This requires haproxy version newer than 1. Fast data transfers are made possible on Linux 3. Forwarding rates of imporf to 40 Gbps have already been achieved on such platforms after a very careful tuning. While Solaris and AIX are supported, they should not be used if extreme performance is required.
Highest data rates are achieved with large objects to minimise the overhead caused by session setup and teardown. Large objects generally increase session concurrency, and high session concurrency with high data rate requires large amounts of memory to support large windows.
High data rates burn a lot of CPU and bus cycles on software load balancers because the data has to be copied from the input interface to memory and then back to the output device. Hardware load balancers tend to directly switch packets from input port to output port for higher data rate, but cannot process them and sometimes fail to touch a header or a cookie.
Haproxy on a typical Xeon E5 of can forward data up to about 40 Gbps. A fanless 1. A load balancer's performance related to these factors is generally announced for the best case eg: This is not because of lack of honnesty from the vendors, but because it is not possible to tell exactly how it will behave in every combination.
So when those 3 limits are known, the customer should be aware that it will generally perform below all of them. A good rule of thumb on software load balancers is to consider an average practical performance of half of maximal session and data rates for average sized objects.
Reliability - keeping high-traffic sites online since Being obsessed with reliability, I tried to do my best to ensure a total continuity of service by design. It's more difficult to design something reliable from the ground up in the short term, but in the long term it reveals easier to maintain than broken code which tries to hide its own bugs behind respawning processes and tricks like this.
In single-process programs, you have no right to fail: There has not been any such bug found in stable versions for the last 13 years, though it happened a few times with development code running in production. HAProxy has been installed on Linux 2. Obviously, they were not directly exposed to the Internet because they did not receive any patch at all. The kernel was a heavily patched 2. On such systems, the software cannot fail without being immediately noticed! Right now, it's being used in many Fortune companies around the world to reliably serve billions of pages per day or relay huge amounts of money.
Some people even trust it so much that they use it as the default solution to solve simple problems and I often tell them that they do it the dirty way.
Such people sometimes still use versions 1. HAProxy is really suited for such environments because the indicators it returns provide a lot of valuable information about the application's health, behaviour and defects, which are used to make it even more reliable.
Version 1. As previously explained, most of the work is executed by the Operating System. For this reason, a large part of the reliability involves the OS itself. Latest versions of Linux 2. However, it requires a bunch of patches to achieve a high level of performance, and this kernel is really outdated now so running it on recent hardware will often be difficult though some people still do.
Linux 2. Some people prefer to run it on Solaris or do not have the choice. Solaris 8 and 9 are known to be really stable right now, offering a level of performance comparable to legacy Linux 2. Solaris 10 might show performances closer to early Linux 2. FreeBSD shows good performance but pf the firewall eats half of it and needs to be disabled to come close to Linux.
The reliability can significantly decrease when the system is pushed to its limits. This is why finely tuning the sysctls is important. There is no general rule, every system and every application will be specific.
However, it is important to ensure that the system will never run out of memory and that it will never swap. A correctly tuned system must be able to run for years at full load without slowing down nor crashing.
Security - Not even one intrusion in 13 years Security is an important concern when deploying a software load balancer. It is possible to harden the OS, to limit the number of open ports and accessible services, but the load balancer itself stays exposed. For this reason, I have been very careful about programming style. Vulnerabilities are very rarely encountered on haproxy, and its architecture significantly limits their impact and often allows easy workarounds.
Its remotely unpredictable even processing makes it very hard to reliably exploit any bug, and if the process ever crashes, the bug is discovered. All of them were discovered by reverse-analysis of an accidental crash BTW.
Anyway, much care is taken when writing code to manipulate headers. Impossible state combinations are checked and returned, and errors are processed from the creation to the death of a session. A few people around the world have reviewed the code and suggested cleanups for better clarity to ease auditing.
By the way, I'm used to refuse patches that introduce suspect processing or in which not enough care is taken for abnormal conditions. I generally suggest starting HAProxy as root because it can then jail itself in a chroot and drop all of its privileges before starting the instances. This is not possible if it is not started as root because only root can execute chroot , contrary to what some admins believe.
Logs provide a lot of information to help maintain a satisfying security level. The following information are particularly useful: HAProxy also provides regex-based header control.
Parts of the request, as well as request and response headers can be denied, allowed, removed, rewritten, or added. Last year. What should hr do when a manager is dating a direct report?.
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